Denmark Denmark

Structure of agricultural production

The total area of agricultural land is 2.65 million ha, which is 60% of the total territory. Arable land accounts for 91%, and permanent pastures and meadows 8%.  Cereals are the main arable crop.

Table 1 Land use (ha) in 2007 (EUROSTAT).

Utilised agricultural area

2,646,860

100%

Arable land

2,419,290

91%

Cereals

1,469,170

56%

Pulses - total

10,350

0%

Potatoes

38,140

1%

Sugar beet

39,070

1%

Fodder roots and brassicas

4,120

0%

Industrial crops - total

165,720

6%

Fresh vegetables, melons, strawberries

11,980

0%

Flowers and ornemental plants

410

0%

Fodder crops - total

562,360

21%

Seeds and seedlings

66,650

3%

Other crops on arable land

16,570

1%

Fallow land - total (with and w/o subsidies)

34,740

1%

Kitchen gardens

0

0%

Total: Permanent grassland and meadow

199,860

8%

Pasture and meadow: Permanent grassland and meadow

101,260

4%

Rough grazings: Permanent grassland and meadow

36,080

1%

Permanent grassland and meadow - not used for production, eligible for subsidies

62,510

2%

Permanent crops

27,720

1%

Fruit and berry plantations - total

6,050

0%

Citrus plantations

0

0%

Olive plantations - total

0

0%

Vineyards - total

0

0%

Nurseries

1,520

0%

Other permanent crops

20,130

1%

Permanent crops under glass

20

0%

Other land - Total

355,230

13%

Mushrooms

0

0%

Energy crops

3,990

0%

Genetically modified crops

0

0%

 

There are 45,000 farms in Denmark, of which 34,000 holdings that grow cereals. Farms are generally larger than the average farm size in the European Union. The average livestock density is a factor two higher than the EU average.

Table 1 Structure of agricultural holdings (EUROSTAT).

GEO

EU27

 

DK

 

TIME/INDIC_AG

2007

 

2007

 

Number of holdings. 1 000

13,700

 

45

 

Number of holdings, agricultural area < 5 ha. 1 000

9,645

70%

2

4%

Number of holdings, agricultural area 5-<20 ha. 1 000

2,553

19%

17

39%

Number of holdings, agricultural area 20-<50 ha. 1 000

804

6%

10

23%

Number of holdings, agricultural area >= 50 ha. 1 000

698

5%

15

34%

Holdings with cereals. 1 000

7,154

 

34

 

Total labour force. 1 000 AWU

11,693

 

56

 

Family labour force. 1 000 pers

24,827

 

64

 

Holdings with another gainful activity than agricultural production (% all holdings)

10

 

23

 

Livestock density: livestock units/utilised agricultural area (LSU/UAA)

0.78

 

1.72

 

 

Climate

Weather stations were selected with 20 years of consecutive daily data (Danish Meteorological Service). Wind speed was recalculated from 10 to 2 meter height, and  vapour pressure was calculated from the relative humidity and temperature.

Table 2 Summary of weather parameters; annual values (1994-2013).

name

Tysltryp

Tystofte

Aarslev

Jyndevand

Foulum

Climate zone

2802

2802

2802

2902

2902

T_min (oC)

4.9

5.6

5.4

5.2

4.7

T_max (oC)

30.9

31.0

32.4

32.8

30.5

Prec (mm)

771

686

668

870

654

Radiation (kJ/m2/d)

10190

10494

10321

9825

9774

 

Table 3 Summary of weather parameters; April – September (1994-2013).

name

Tysltryp

Tystofte

Aarslev

Jyndevand

Foulum

Climate zone

2802

2802

2802

2902

2902

T_min (oC)

9.0

9.8

9.5

9.3

8.8

T_max (oC)

30.9

31.0

32.4

32.8

30.5

Prec (mm)

408

374

343

429

339

Radiation (kJ/m2/d)

16598

16911

16659

15662

15768

 

 

Soils

Soil data were extracted from the "European Soil Database v2 Raster Library" http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDB_Data_Distribution/ESDB_data.html

The European Soil Database (ESDB) contains four discrete datasets:

  • the Soil Geographical Database of Eurasia at scale 1:1,000,000 (SGDBE)
  • the Pedotransfer Rules Database (PTRDB)
  • the Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europa (SPADBE)
  • the Database of Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES)

 

Figure 1 Soil texture

 

The soils in Denmark are mainly coarse sandy soils. In the eastern areas, loamy soils are more dominant.  The soil database contains parameters on rooting depth and available soil moisture. Most areas in Denmark are not affected by high ground water levels, with the exception of small areas in the north.  

Modeling potential and water-limited yields

Potential and water limited yields were simulated with the WOFOST crop model (http://www.wageningenur.nl/en/Expertise-Services/Research-Institutes/alterra/Facilities-Products/Software/WOFOST.htm ). Standard crop files are available for winter wheat, spring barley and grain maize. These are mainly based on Boons-Prins (1993), but have occasionally been updated following specific validation or calibration studies in the context of CGMS (e.g. ASEMARS studies; Wolf et al., 2008).

As a starting point, the existing crop files were used. Modifications were carried out on the basis of country-specific data, in two steps:

  • TSUM0, TSUM1 and TSUM 2, based on observed phenology
  • SPAN, SLATB and AMAXTB, based on the annually highest observed yields in experiments under non-limiting conditions (water, nutrients, crop protection)

Actual yields

The actual yield data were collected per NUTS-2 region from the Danish Statistical office for the period 2008 – 2012. These yields were re-calculated per selected weather station buffer zone, using the harvested areas.

 

Table 43 Average actual cereal yields (kg/ha) per selected weather station buffer zone at standard moisture content (2008-2012).

 

Winter wheat

Winter barley

Spring barley

Aarslev

7265

5946

4941

Foulum

7142

5805

4923

Jyndevad

7322

6022

4950

Roskilde

8028

6598

5918

Tylstrup

6907

5616

4894

 

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