Germany Germany

Structure of agricultural production

The total area of utilised agricultural land is nearly 17 million ha, which is just under half the total territory. Arable land accounts for 70%, and permanent pastures and meadows 29%.  The main arable crops are cereals and industrial crops.

Table 1 Land use (ha) in 2007 (EUROSTAT).

Utilised agricultural area

16,931,900

100%

Arable land

11,890,450

70%

Cereals

6,582,500

39%

Common wheat and spelt

2,988,540

18%

Durum wheat

7,510

0%

Rye

684,860

4%

Barley

1,925,760

11%

Oats

197,140

1%

Grain maize

397,770

2%

Rice

0

0%

Other cereals

380,920

2%

Pulses - total

108,730

1%

Potatoes

276,600

2%

Sugar beet

405,320

2%

Fodder roots and brassicas

9,090

0%

Industrial plants

1,615,690

10%

Outdoor:Fresh vegetables, melons, strawberries

118,010

1%

Under glass:Fresh vegetables, melons, strawberries

940

0%

Outdoor:Flowers and ornemental plants

6,700

0%

Under glass:Flowers and ornemental plants

2,500

0%

Forage plants - total

2,086,780

12%

Seeds and seedlings

29,100

0%

Other crops

0

0%

Fallow land without subsidies

63,170

0%

Kitchen gardens

4,430

0%

Total:Permanent grassland and meadow

4,838,570

29%

Permanent crops

198,450

1%

Other land

1,753,630

10%

 

There are 370,000 farms in Germany, of which 227,000 holdings that grow cereals. Farms are generally larger than the average farm size in the European Union. The average livestock density is 35% above the EU average.

Table 1 Structure of agricultural holdings (EUROSTAT).

GEO

EU27

 

DE

 

TIME/INDIC_AG

2007

 

2007

 

Number of holdings. 1 000

13,700

 

370

 

Number of holdings, agricultural area < 5 ha. 1 000

9,645

70%

84

23%

Number of holdings, agricultural area 5-<20 ha. 1 000

2,553

19%

120

32%

Number of holdings, agricultural area 20-<50 ha. 1 000

804

6%

82

22%

Number of holdings, agricultural area >= 50 ha. 1 000

698

5%

85

23%

Holdings with cereals. 1 000

7,154

 

227

 

Total labour force. 1 000 AWU

11,693

 

609

 

Family labour force. 1 000 pers

24,827

 

748

 

Holdings with another gainful activity than agricultural production (% all holdings)

10

 

22

 

Livestock density: livestock units/utilised agricultural area (LSU/UAA)

0.78

 

1.06

 

 

Climate

DWD weather stations were selected with 15 years of consecutive daily data. Wind speed was recalculated from 10 to 2 meter height: Wind speed at 2m = Wind speed at 10m * 0,718. Radiation was derived from NASA.

 

Table 10 Average weather for some contrasting stations in Germany (1991-2012).

Name

Annual precipitation (mm)

Average Temperature (oC)

Schleswig

876

9.0

Schwerin

646

9.4

Magdeburg

530

9.8

Mannheim

646

11.2

Augsburg

760

8.8

 

For wheat and barley, 13 and 14 weather stations were selected in eight climate zones. For grain maize, six stations were selected in five climate zones. With these selected stations a cover of around 50% was attained.

Table 10 Harvested areas (SPAM) per selected weather station.

GYGA

Station

Total Wheat (ha)

(%)

Total barley (ha)

(%)

Total maize (ha)

(%)

2802

Augsburg

103,930

3.7

108,026

5.1

26,484

7.0

3802

Bremen

       

35,999

9.5

3602

Dresden-Klotzsche

37,465

1.3

31,709

1.5

   

3802

Düsseldorf

       

83,843

22.1

2502

Erfurt-Weimar

93,812

3.3

49,273

2.3

   

3702

Giessen/Wettenberg

   

24,898

1.2

   

3702

Hannover

111,803

4.0

90,547

4.3

   

3502

Lindenberg

68,293

2.4

       

3502

Leipzig/Halle

   

105,104

4.9

   

3802

Müster/Osnabrück

283,469

10.1

205,911

9.7

   

3502

Magdeburg

193,922

6.9

       

3602

Mannheim

57,733

2.0

71,827

3.4

26,359

7.0

2602

Meiningen

102,336

3.6

76,155

3.6

   

3602

Neuruppin

40,668

1.4

26,626

1.3

   

3502

Potsdam

           

2702

Rostock-Warnemünde

201,459

7.1

106,435

5.0

   

2902

Schleswig

40,098

1.4

       

3702

Straubing

   

23,115

1.1

   

3702

Stuttgart/Echterdingen

   

24,206

1.1

17,404

4.6

2702

Weiden

82,158

2.9

73,294

3.4

13,734

3.6

   

1,417,146

50.3

1,017,126

47.8

203,822

53.8

 

Soils

Soil data were extracted from the "European Soil Database v2 Raster Library" http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDB_Data_Distribution/ESDB_data.html

The European Soil Database (ESDB) contains four discrete datasets:

  • the Soil Geographical Database of Eurasia at scale 1:1,000,000 (SGDBE)
  • the Pedotransfer Rules Database (PTRDB)
  • the Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europa (SPADBE)
  • the Database of Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES)

Figure 8 Soil texture

 

The soils in Germany are predominantly of coarse, medium and medium fine texture. Coarse soils dominate in the north, while medium and fine textured soils are found in central and south Germany. Within each selected weather station buffer zone, the three dominant soil map units were selected. Each soil map unit consists of one to seven soil type units. The soil database contains parameters on rooting depth and available soil moisture.

Modeling potential and water-limited yields

Potential and water limited yields were simulated with the WOFOST crop model (http://www.wageningenur.nl/en/Expertise-Services/Research-Institutes/alterra/Facilities-Products/Software/WOFOST.htm ). Standard crop files are available for winter wheat, spring barley and grain maize. These are mainly based on Boons-Prins (1993), but have occasionally been updated following specific validation or calibration studies in the context of CGMS (e.g. ASEMARS studies; Wolf et al., 2008).

As a starting point, the existing crop files were used. Modifications were carried out on the basis of country-specific data, in two steps:

  • TSUM0, TSUM1 and TSUM 2, based on observed phenology
  • SPAN, SLATB and AMAXTB, based on the annually highest observed yields in variety experiments under non-limiting conditions (water, nutrients, crop protection)

Actual yields

The actual yield data were collected per NUTS-2 region from the German Statistical Office for the period 2007 – 2011 (http://www.statistikportal.de/Statistik-Portal/). These yields were re-calculated per selected weather station buffer zone, using the harvested areas.

 

Table 43 Actual cereal yields (kg/ha) per selected weather station buffer zone at standard moisture content.

 

Wheat

Winter barley

Spring barley

Maize

(06-11)

 (07-12)

 (07-12)

(07-12)

Augsburg

7196

5371

5300

10289

Bremen

   

 

9634

Düsseldorf

   

 

10409

Dresden-Klotzsche

6516

5165

4478

 

Erfurt-Weimar

7170

5965

5198

 

Giessen/Wettenberg

 

5385

4909

 

Hannover

7976

5613

4874

 

Leipzig/Halle

 

5577

4844

 

Lindenberg

5639

 

 

 

Münster/Osnabrück

7459

5290

4812

 

Magdeburg

6750

 

 

 

Mannheim

7225

5159

5063

10582

Meiningen

6622

5079

4715

 

Neuruppin

6063

4748

3020

 

Rostock-Warnemünde

7133

5534

4513

 

Schleswig

8847

 

 

 

Straubing

 

5322

4658

 

Stuttgart/Echterdingen

 

5180

5253

10829

Weiden

6736

4891

4572

10289

 

Go to the Atlas

Get access to the Atlas for advanced users

 

Download GYGA results

All downloads are available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) license.

Commercial use of the data is encouraged. Please contact UNL or WUR for license information.

Country agronomist Country agronomist