Poland Poland

Structure of agricultural production

The total area of agricultural land is 15.4 million ha, which is approximately 50% of the total Polish territory. Cultivated land accounts for approximately 70%, permanent pastures and meadows 22%, and orchards 3%. The average farm size is nearly 10 ha. The main arable crops are cereals, potatoes and rape.

Figure 1. Average area of agricultural land per holding in 2002 and in 2010. Source: Agriculture in 2011, Central Statistical Office (GUS), Warsaw.

 

Figure 2. Agricultural holdings in rural areas by selected crops groups and voivodships in 2010 Source: Agriculture in 2011, Central Statistical Office (GUS), Warsaw.

Rainfed wheat is the dominant cereal in Poland, with 2.5 million ha. Rainfed barley is grown on approximately one million ha; approximately 25% winter barley and 75% spring barley. Grain maize is grown on 160,000 ha, mainly in the southern regions. 

Table 1 Total harvested areas (ha) of cereals per NUTS-2 region (SPAM).

NUTS_ID

NUTS_NAME

Wheat

(ha)

Wheat

(%)

Barley

(ha)

Barley (%)

Maize

(ha)

Maize

(%)

PL11

Lódzkie

189,879

7

78,152

7

18,171

11

PL12

Mazowieckie

354,984

14

144,029

13

26,722

17

PL21

Malopolskie

106,243

4

47,395

4

4,602

3

PL22

Slaskie

75,216

3

32,571

3

4,312

3

PL31

Lubelskie

218,312

8

93,335

9

20,184

13

PL32

Podkarpackie

104,949

4

44,745

4

7,943

5

PL33

Swietokrzyskie

91,856

4

41,113

4

6,933

4

PL34

Podlaskie

116,504

4

50,962

5

4,261

3

PL41

Wielkopolskie

305,758

12

127,047

12

23,580

15

PL42

Zachodniopomorskie

174,132

7

71,163

7

4,811

3

PL43

Lubuskie

78,515

3

30,380

3

6,571

4

PL51

Dolnoslaskie

166,310

6

71,109

7

12,571

8

PL52

Opolskie

84,708

3

37,628

3

6,026

4

PL61

Kujawsko-Pomorskie

200,485

8

82,677

8

9,997

6

PL62

Warminsko-mazurskie

212,817

8

82,642

8

1,806

1

PL63

Pomorskie

138,788

5

56,699

5

1,630

1

Poland

 

2,619,456

100

1,091,647

100

160,119

100

 

Climate

Weather data were collected from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB ; http://www.imgw.pl/index.php?lang=en&option=com_content&view=article&id=147&Itemid=180).  The measured data are: Sunshine (hours d-1), minimum temperature (degrees Celsius), maximum temperature (degrees Celsius), Relative humidity (%), mean wind speed at 10 m height (m s-1) and precipitation (mm d-1). Wind speed was recalculated from 10 to 2 meter height: Wind speed at 2m = Wind speed at 10m * 0,718. The vapour pressure was calculated from the relative humidity: ea = es * Rh (hPa), es = 6.11 * e(17.4Ts/(Ts+239)), Ts = ((Tmax+Tmin)/2+Tmax)/2.

Table 2 Average weather for four contrasting weather stations in Poland (1995-2009).

 

Lebork

Lesko

Siedlce

Zielona Gora

Average T-min (oC)

4.3

3.9

3.8

5.8

Average T-max (oC)

12.5

12.4

12.6

13.2

Annual precipitation (mm)

714

871

528

597

 

For wheat and barley, 17 weather stations were selected in 8 different climate zones. For maize, 11 weather stations were used in 6 different climate zones. With these selected stations a cover of around 50% was attained.

Table 3 Harvested areas (SPAM) per selected weather station.

GYGA

Station

Total Wheat (ha)

(%)

Total barley (ha)

(%)

Total maize (ha)

(%)

2702

ELBLAG

80,076

3

34,961

3

   

3502

KALISZ

317,711

12

134,579

12

30,102

19

2602

KLODZKO

34,814

1

15,461

1

   

2702

KRAKOW

79,537

3

35,264

3

3,824

2

2802

LEBORK

38,414

1

14,330

1

   

2702

LESKO

27,032

1

11,889

1

   

2602

MLAWA

63,165

2

24,083

2

2,936

2

2703

OLSZTYN

51,099

2

17,642

2

   

3602

OPOLE

38,607

1

16,752

2

3,201

2

3602

PILA

55,733

2

19,673

2

   

2702

RESKO

40,521

2

17,375

2

   

3502

SANDOMIERZ

33,083

1

14,567

1

2,985

2

2503

SIEDLCE

109,321

4

47,326

4

10,922

7

2602

SULEJOW

63,778

2

27,364

3

4,651

3

2502

TERESPOL

56,166

2

23,247

2

5,585

3

2502

TORUN

95,338

4

38,207

3

5,644

4

3502

ZIELONA GORA

144,941

6

59,037

5

13,093

8

   

1,329,336

51

551,755

51

82,943

52

 

Soils

Soil data were extracted from the "European Soil Database v2 Raster Library" http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDB_Data_Distribution/ESDB_data.html

The European Soil Database (ESDB) contains four discrete datasets:

  • the Soil Geographical Database of Eurasia at scale 1:1,000,000 (SGDBE)
  • the Pedotransfer Rules Database (PTRDB)
  • the Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europa (SPADBE)
  • the Database of Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES)

Figure 3 Soil texture

The soils in Poland are predominantly of coarse and medium texture. Within each selected weather station buffer zone, the three dominant soil map units were selected. Each soil map unit consists of one to seven soil type units. The soil database contains parameters on rooting depth and available soil moisture.

Table 4. Examples of relation between soil map unit (SMU) and soil type unit (STU) and soil parameters per soil type unit (STU).

SMU

%

STU

Rooting depth

(cm)

Available Water Capacity

(m/m)

480003

75

480009

150

0.150

 

15

480011

100

0.137

 

10

480010

100

0.415

480011

40

480041

150

0.090

 

20

480042

100

0.142

 

15

480044

100

0.163

 

10

480043

150

0.090

 

10

480045

100

0.137

 

5

480046

100

0.407

480025

50

480120

100

0.145

 

30

480121

150

0.136

 

10

480122

150

0.090

 

5

480123

100

0.145

 

5

480124

120

0.165

 

Modeling potential and water-limited yields

Potential and water limited yields were simulated with the WOFOST crop model (http://www.wageningenur.nl/en/Expertise-Services/Research-Institutes/alterra/Facilities-Products/Software/WOFOST.htm ). Standard crop files are available for winter wheat, spring barley and grain maize. These are mainly based on Boons-Prins (1993), but have occasionally been updated following specific validation or calibration studies in the context of CGMS (e.g. ASEMARS studies; Wolf et al., 2008).

As a starting point, the existing crop files were used. Modifications were carried out on the basis of country-specific data, in two steps:

  • TSUM0, TSUM1 and TSUM 2, based on observed phenology
  • SPAN, SLATB and AMAXTB, based on the annually highest observed yields in variety experiments under non-limiting conditions (water, nutrients, crop protection)

Phenology data were derived from experiments conducted by the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing (COBORU http://coboru.pl/English/index_eng.aspx). The obtained data for wheat and barley were from the period 1990 - 2011, and for maize from the period 1999 - 2008.

 

Figure 4 COBORU experimental testing network

Observed yield data were collected from variety experiments across Poland (COBORU). For winter wheat, winter barley and spring barley yield data (average, lowest, highest) of varieties were available per region. The yields of the best variety were used for validation and calibration. The yields were re-calculated from region to buffer zone, using weighing factors derived from the harvested areas. For maize, data of individual experiments with different FAO-numbers were available (same data as used for phenology).

Actual yields

The actual yield data were collected per NUTS-2 region from the Polish Statistical office for the period 2005 – 2009 (http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/index_ENG_HTML.htm). These yields were re-calculated per selected weather station buffer zone, using the harvested areas.

 

Table 5 Actual cereal yields (kg/ha) per selected weather station buffer zone at standard moisture content (2005-2009).

 

Winter wheat

Winter barley

Spring barley

Grain maize

ELBLAG

4363

3341

2682

 

KALISZ

4049

3740

3034

5556

KLODZKO

4728

4418

3394

 

KRAKOW

3322

3208

3011

5963

LEBORK

4654

3778

2839

 

LESKO

3146

2874

2885

 

MLAWA

3841

3290

2736

5402

OLSZTYN

4138

3114

2565

 

OPOLE

4544

4270

3460

6446

PILA

4229

3916

2900

 

RESKO

4444

4163

2833

 

SANDOMIERZ

3194

2893

2813

5395

SIEDLCE

3416

2890

2699

5446

SULEJOW

3428

3107

2782

5474

TERESPOL

3330

2868

2825

5352

TORUN

4108

3621

2895

5351

ZIELONA GORA

4007

3640

2776

5607

 

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