Spain Spain

Structure of agricultural production

The total area of agricultural land is nearly 24 million ha, which is 78% of the total territory. Arable land accounts for 48%, and permanent pastures and meadows 13%.  Cereals are the main arable crop.

Table 1 Land use (ha) in 2007 (EUROSTAT).

Utilised agricultural area

23,752,690

100%

Arable land

11,286,010

48%

Cereals

6,291,820

26%

Pulses - total

318,130

1%

Potatoes

61,890

0%

Sugar beet

48,580

0%

Fodder roots and brassicas

17,550

0%

Industrial crops - total

900,440

4%

Fresh vegetables, melons, strawberries

236,490

1%

Flowers and ornemental plants

6,610

0%

Fodder crops - total

736,100

3%

Seeds and seedlings

4,430

0%

Other crops on arable land

0

0%

Fallow land - total (with and w/o subsidies)

2,663,960

11%

Kitchen gardens

3,050

0%

Total: Permanent grassland and meadow

8,377,390

35%

Pasture and meadow: Permanent grassland and meadow

3,098,490

13%

Rough grazings: Permanent grassland and meadow

4,973,410

21%

Permanent grassland and meadow - not used for production, eligible for subsidies

305,490

1%

Permanent crops

4,086,240

17%

Fruit and berry plantations - total

749,550

3%

Citrus plantations

287,570

1%

Olive plantations - total

2,153,730

9%

Vineyards - total

852,620

4%

Nurseries

8,780

0%

Other permanent crops

31,900

0%

Permanent crops under glass

2,100

0%

Other land - Total

6,861,480

29%

Mushrooms

80

0%

Energy crops

14,230

0%

Genetically modified crops

16,820

0%

 

There are 1,043,000 farms in Spain, of which 286,000 holdings that grow cereals. Farms are generally larger than the average farm size in the European Union. The average livestock density is a lower than the EU average.

Table 1 Structure of agricultural holdings (EUROSTAT).

GEO

EU27

 

ES

 

TIME/INDIC_AG

2007

 

2007

 

Number of holdings. 1 000

13,700

 

1,043.91

 

Number of holdings, agricultural area < 5 ha. 1 000

9,645

70%

551.36

53%

Number of holdings, agricultural area 5-<20 ha. 1 000

2,553

19%

279.69

27%

Number of holdings, agricultural area 20-<50 ha. 1 000

804

6%

111.67

11%

Number of holdings, agricultural area >= 50 ha. 1 000

698

5%

101.19

10%

Holdings with cereals. 1 000

7,154

 

286.64

 

Total labour force. 1 000 AWU

11,693

 

967.68

 

Family labour force. 1 000 pers

24,827

 

1,915.09

 

Holdings with another gainful activity than agricultural production (% all holdings)

10

 

3.5

 

Livestock density: livestock units/utilised agricultural area (LSU/UAA)

0.78

 

0.57

 

 

 

Climate

Weather stations were selected with 13 years of consecutive daily data. Wind speed was recalculated from 10 to 2 meter height, and  vapour pressure was calculated from the relative humidity and temperature.

Table 2 Summary of weather parameters; annual values (2001-2013).

STAT

STATION_NAME

Precipitation (mm)

Temperature (oC)

 

 

Average

Min

Max

Average

Tmin

Tmax

ESP12

01.- ARAZURI

744

428

1037

12.8

-6.8

37.8

ESP21

Fuentecantos

452

296

588

9.7

-15.3

35.3

ESP57

La Palma del Condado

617

291

1047

18

-0.3

41.2

ESP60

Tabernas

260

144

416

16.5

-4

40

 

Soils

Soil data were extracted from the "European Soil Database v2 Raster Library" http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDB_Data_Distribution/ESDB_data.html

The European Soil Database (ESDB) contains four discrete datasets:

  • the Soil Geographical Database of Eurasia at scale 1:1,000,000 (SGDBE)
  • the Pedotransfer Rules Database (PTRDB)
  • the Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europa (SPADBE)
  • the Database of Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES)

 

Figure 1 Soil texture

 

The soils in Spain are mainly medium to fine clay soils. In the western areas, sandy soils are more dominant.  The soil database contains parameters on rooting depth and available soil moisture.

Modeling potential and water-limited yields

Potential and water limited yields were simulated with the WOFOST crop model (http://www.wageningenur.nl/en/Expertise-Services/Research-Institutes/alterra/Facilities-Products/Software/WOFOST.htm ). Standard crop files are available for winter wheat, spring barley and grain maize. These are mainly based on Boons-Prins (1993), but have occasionally been updated following specific validation or calibration studies in the context of CGMS (e.g. ASEMARS studies; Wolf et al., 2008).

As a starting point, the existing crop files were used. Modifications were carried out on the basis of country-specific data, in two steps:

  • TSUM0, TSUM1 and TSUM 2, based on observed phenology
  • SPAN, SLATB and AMAXTB, based on the annually highest observed yields in experiments under non-limiting conditions (water, nutrients, crop protection)

Actual yields

The actual yield data were collected per NUTS-2 region from the Spanish Statistical offices. These yields were re-calculated per selected weather station buffer zone, using the harvested areas. For maize the last five years were used, while for wheat and barley the last 10 years were used.

 

Figure 2 Average annual yields (kg standard moisture content/ha) of cereals.

 

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Country agronomists Country agronomists


Inés Mínguez

CEIGRAM

 


Alba Castaneda Vera

CEIGRAM